Research Papers – Vegan

There is considerable research on each of our three amazing ingredients and their positive effects on the skin and body. We have selected the six most recent, clinical, placebo-controlled trials for each. If you would like the full list, please email: [email protected]


  1. Hong M.J. et al. Inhibitory effect of Astragalus membranaceus root on matrix metalloproteinase-1
    collagenase expression and procollagen destruction in ultraviolet B-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts
    by suppressing nuclear factor kappa-B activity. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2013; 65(1):142-8.
  2. Liu X et al. Protective effects of astragaloside against ultraviolet A-induced photoaging in human
    fibroblasts. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao.2011; 9(3):328-32.
  3. Hashim P. The effect of Centella asiatica, vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixtures preparations in
    stimulating collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblast. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014;
  4. An IS et al. Centella asiatica protects against UVB-induced HaCaT keratinocyte damage through microRNA
    expression changes. Int J Mol Med. 2012; 30(6):1349-56.
  5. An IS et al. Titrated extract of Centella asiatica provides a UVB protective effect by altering microRNA
    expression profiles in human dermal fibroblasts. Int J Mol Med. 2012;30(5):1194-202.


There are over 400 peer-reviewed studies on astaxanthin and its impact on human health.
AstaReal, the astaxanthin used in Ingenious products, has been featured in the vast majority of these studies.
The clinical database for AstaReal contains over 50 human studies including 23 double-blind, placebo-
controlled trials with more than 1,400 participants undergoing treatments lasting from 2 weeks to 6 months.
A selection of these research studies concentrate on skin are:

  1. Tominaga K et al., Cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on human subjects. Acta Biochim Pol. 2012;59(1):43-7.
  2. Suganuma K et al., Anti-aging and functional improvement effects for the skin by functional food intake: clinical effects on skin by oral ingestion of preparations containing Astaxanthin and Vitamins C and E. Jichi Medical University Journal. 2012;35:25-33.
  3. Tominaga K et al., Cosmetic effects of astaxanthin for all layers of skin. Food Style 21. 2009;13(10):25-9.
  4. Satoh A et al., Effect of the intake of astaxanthin containing Haematococcus pluvialis extract on the severity, immunofunction and physiological function in patients with atopic dermatitis. Jpn J Environ Dermatol Cutan Allergol. 2009;3(5):429-38.
  5. Yamashita E, The effects of a dietary supplement containing astaxanthin on skin condition. Carotenoid Science. 2006;10:91-5.
  6. Camera E et al. Astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and b-carotene differently affect UVA-induced oxidative damage and expression of oxidative stress-responsive enzymes. Experimental Dermatology, 18, 222231

Hyaluronic Acid
There is a very large body of research into the use of HA in human health going back to the mid 19 th century.
Unfortunately, most of the recent stuff has concentrated on joint health and injectable forms. However, the
following are concerned with skin:

  1. Meyer LJM et al. Age-dependent changes of hyaluronan in human skin. Journal of Investigative
    Dermatology. 1994;102:385-389.
  2. Sakai S et al. Hyaluronan exists in the normal stratum corneum. Journal of Investigative Dermatology.
  3. Meyer LJM et al. Reduced hyaluronan in keloid tissue and cultured keloid fibroblasts. Journal of
    Investigative Dermatology. 2000;114:953-959.
  4. Wakayama S, presenter. Clinical study on demonstrates improvement of skin moisture content. Poster
    session presented at the March 2009 Nutracon and SupplyExpo conference, Anaheim, CA.

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